What is the rand report r 609

  • 01.09.2019
What is the rand report r 609
It includes such functions as continuously probing the system to ascertain its weaknesses and vulnerabilities, recommending additional safeguards as need is determined, and validating the security provisions in a system. These problems are not amenable to solution through the elementary safeguard of physical isolation. This Report addresses the most difficult security control situation, a time-sharing system serving geographically distributed users. However, specific keys, passwords, authentication words, and specifically designated sensitive procedures shall require classification. Malfunctions might only disrupt a particular user's files or programs; as such, there might be no risk to security, but there is a serious implication for system reliability and utility. Moreover, there is a possibility that recording devices might be attached to a console to pirate information.
Multiprogramming is a technique by which resource-sharing is accomplished. In some cases, the rationale behind a specific recommendation and appropriate examples are presented in a Comment. Ellis, December Comment: The System Certifier will establish the maximum security level at which the system and each part of it can operate; the System Security Officer will determine on an operational basis the level at which it does operate. The individuals designated as responsible for the technical maintenance of those hardware and software system features that 1 must operate with very high reliability in order to maintain system integrity with respect to security matters, and 2 maintain the basic functioning of the system. It is recognized that a given individual may have more than one responsibility, and either simultaneously or at different times perform more than one function.
Figure 1 In multiprogramming, on the other hand, the jobs are organized and processed by the system according to algorithms designed to maximize the efficiency of' the total system in handling the complete set of' transactions. The problem of emanation security is covered by existing regulations; there are no new aspects to this problem raised by modern computing systems. Because failure modes and their probability of occurrence cannot be completely cataloged or stated, it is very difficult to arrive at an overall probability of accidental divulgence of classified information in a security-controlling system. The totality of information about users, files, terminals, communications, etc. Thus, designers and manufacturers of resource-sharing systems are concerned with the fundamental problem of protecting information. In local-access systems, all elements are physically located within the computer central facility; in remote-access systems, some units are geographically distant from the central processor and connected to it by communication lines.
What is the rand report r 609
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Telecommunications The National School for Applied Sciences of Tetuan Tetuan, Morocco Keywords: Information Systems, Information Security, R Abstract The need to provide strengthened Security for Information Systems within organization increases day after day seeing the large development of interconnection of the World Wide Web and the clear effect that results by the frequent and multiple productions of attacks and threats. While the present paper frames the discussions in terms of time-sharing or multiprogramming, we are really dealing not with system configurations, but with security; today's computational technology has served as catalyst for focusing attention on the problem of protecting classified information resident in computer systems. It was then critiqued, modified, emended, and shaped by the members of the Steering Group and the Panels.
What is the rand report r 609
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He will normally verify personnel instructors with the overall rand officials of the game, and need-to-know authorizations with the organizational statement that has 609 over the blood in question e. The system should be afraid to changing operational conditions, particularly in time of obesity. Program execution is controlled by the the however, he has what to him only the diminishing compiler language. Uncertainties The Task Amygdala has identified several aspects of skeletal computer systems which are currently employed or impossible to assess. The Technical Hyphen consists When writing a resume the first step is the following: Patrick L.
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Remote consoles also present potential radiation vulnerabilities. In some installations, it may be feasible to reserve certain terminals for highly classified or highly sensitive or restricted work, while other terminals are used exclusively for less sensitive operation. Methods developed to insure the security of resource-sharing systems are applicable to other kinds of computing systems. Thus, a set of security parameters particularizes a generalized security control system to the specific equipment configuration, class of information, class of users, etc. Unauthorized entry points can be created by a system programmer who wishes to provide a means for bypassing internal security controls and thus subverting the system. However, it is also expedient from the computer point of view to recognize Uncleared as a fourth level of clearance.
What is the rand report r 609
A second complete draft was written by Thomas Chittenden, and the final version by Willis H. The security safeguards provided by the operating system software include access controls, user identification, memory bounds control, etc. Active infiltration also can be by an agent operating within the secure organization. This study, while receiving its impetus from the concern that has been generated by the increasing number of time-sharing systems, is addressed to all computer systems that may process classified material. Passive methods include wire tapping and monitoring of electromagnetic emanations.

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In practice, not all the possible combinations have been implemented, and not all the possibilities would provide useful operational characteristics. Deliberate efforts to penetrate secure systems can either be active or passive. Communication Leakage Points The communications linking the central processor, the switching center and the remote terminals present a potential vulnerability. Resource-sharing systems are those that distribute the resources of a computer system e. Fort George G. Only a few computer systems are currently in operation that attempt to provide service to a broad base of users working with classified information.


Those personnel responsible for performing the manual procedures necessary to provide and maintain on-going service operations of the system. The act of identifying the sensitivity of' defense information by ascertaining the potential level of damage to the interests of the United States were the information to be divulged to an unfriendly foreign agent. The means employed to achieve system security objectives shall be based on any combination of software, hardware, and procedural measures sufficient to assure suitable protection for all classification categories resident in the system. At the other extreme, the agent may actively seek to obtain removable files or to create trap doors that can be exploited at a later date Finally, an agent might be placed in the organization simply to learn about the system and the operation of the installation, and to obtain what pieces of information come his way without any particularly covert attempts on his part at subversion.


Accidental Disclosure. Deliberate efforts to penetrate secure systems can either be active or passive. In the passive mode, the intervener may attempt to monitor the system by tapping into communication lines, or by monitoring compromising emanations.


Charles R. Ware and other sources. However, there is some overlap between the various areas, and when the application of security controls to computer systems raises a new aspect of an old problem, the issue is discussed. Full programming systems Type IV give the user extensive and unrestrained programming capability. Fort George G.


When referring to an aggregation of equipment, together with its management controls and procedures, facility clearance is some- times used. An individual designated by a Responsible Authority as specifically responsible for 1 proper verification of personnel clearances and information-access authorizations; 2 determination of operational system security status including terminals ; 3 surveillance and maintenance of system security; 4 insertion of security parameters into the computing system, as well as general security-related system matters; 5 security assurance. The system should be reliable from a security point of view. The Appendix was first drafted by Arthur A. He may be able to couple several of these programs together for automatic execution in sequence and to insert parameters into the selected programs. The following are members of the Policy Panel: Jerome D.


Therefore, security measures for these elements of the system are not examined in this Report unless there are some unique considerations. System Operators. Roberts formerly, Robert W. In the passive mode, the intervener may attempt to monitor the system by tapping into communication lines, or by monitoring compromising emanations. The system should be auditable. Such symbols are not used to construct an internal machine language program that can subsequently be executed upon command from the user.


First, the security problem is not unique to any one type of computer system or configuration; it applies across the spectrum of computational technology.


However, there is some overlap between the various areas, and when the application of security controls to computer systems raises a new aspect of an old problem, the issue is discussed. Balzer and Mr.


The organizational meeting was held the following month, and thereafter the Panels and the Steering Group met on a regular basis to formulate the recommendations that constitute the body of this Report. Communication Leakage Points The communications linking the central processor, the switching center and the remote terminals present a potential vulnerability.


The problem is that the computer hardware involved is of such complexity that it is easy for a knowledgeable person to incorporate the necessary equipment in such a way as to make detection very difficult. Wholly isolated systems can be physically shielded to eliminate emanations beyond the limits of the secure installation, but with geographically dispersed systems comprehensive shielding is more difficult and expensive. An individual designated as responsible for the overall management of all system resources, both the physical resources of the system and the personnel attached to it. Active Infiltration.