This dissertation consists of three manuscripts that integrate economics and ecology to inform cost-effective wildlife management. The first and second manuscripts focus on identifying cost-effective wildlife management plans. The third manuscript considers wildlife management under uncertainty. The first manuscript integrates economic and ecological principles to identify cost-effective management plans. Bio-physical simulation and regression analysis are paired to approximate response functions for an important duck species, the mallard Anas platyrhynchos.
Response functions are then included in an economic optimization model to estimate management cost functions. Approximated response functions indicate that mallard response is non-linear due to diminishing marginal productivity and interdependence of management activities.
This results in non-linear cost functions, which imply that the standard approach of treating ecological production and economic costs independently may result in inefficient management.
The second manuscript extends the first by incorporating landscape heterogeneity. The same modeling approach is replicated for three landscapes that differ in their ecological and economic productivity. This approach demonstrates that taking advantage of landscape heterogeneity can generate cost savings if managers target multiple landscapes simultaneously.
The scarcity of documentation as well as the underlying threats of rodent reservoir zoonoses emphasized the necessity of the study that was undertaken.
This is because human beings are apparently living in close association with rodents at locations of study areas, and this puts their health at risk Singleton, et al. Apart from human beings dwelling with rodents in close association, in rodents infested the wards of Kitwe Central Hospital KCH as documented in the Daily Nation Dated 24th of march, and this is how the problem was identified, because it raised complaints from the patients, and questions to us scientists wildlife biologists.
This is because rodents harbor zoonotic parasites which should be identified both internally and externally on their bodies. What endoparasites helminths are there on rats? Is there a relationship between location compound and the prevalence of parasites on rats?? Specific objectives: i. To identify the species of rats collected from three different compounds within Kitwe. To identify the prevalence of endoparasites helminths on rats collected from three different compounds within Kitwe.
To compare and contrast the relationship between location and parasite endoparasite prevalence on brown rats and black rats. SCOPE This study was intended to look at different parasites that are carried by rats internally by molecular investigation.
The study focused on the endoparasitic helminths that are carried by brown rats and black rats of Kitwe. The parasites were identified so as to find out and predict the type of zoonoses they are capable of transmitting to humans and their livestock. Identification of locations compounds was also done so as to know the abundance of parasites found in rats of a particular area with characteristic habitat type.
The study was carried out in Zambia, Kitwe and the results will be useful in predicting the prevalence of parasites on rats of other cities with the same geographical region, setup, and living standards. It will help us to understand how parasite diversity affect the way of life of rats in relation to their prevalence, and will help us identify the area s which contain rats with a high prevalence of parasites Ahmad, The study is again important because it will give us more effort to study the role of rat-borne parasites in the limiting or regulating rodent population and the impact of rats on the health of humans and their livestock in Kitwe as the population of people is increasing rampantly.
This is because these parasites are sleeping giants that may work up anytime and cause havoc to both humans and livestock Gomez, et al. Rodent-reservoir zoonoses account for many of the apparently prime candidates. Recent articles in the June issue of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, for example, list the following human infections with known or presumed rodent reservoirs as likely weapons in biological warfare: Argentine hemorrhagic fever, hantavirus infections, Lassa fever, Rift-valley fever, Qfever, tularaemia, brucellosis and bubonic plague Bennett, et al.
This may herald an upsurge in interest in studies of rodent reservoir zoonoses. As it is apparent that rodents shall continue to be of major importance as we seek to understand their biology and as we continue to develop new strategies for ecologically based management Sohali. This study will help to compensate for the lack of information by molecular investigation of vector-borne parasites in rats so as to contribute to the global archive of knowledge, not only in Kitwe but also to the country Zambia and the world at large.
The study was conducted in the Kitwe, a district as defined in the provincial and district boundaries Act, Cap. Topographically Kitwe district lies on the gentle sloping Copperbelt peneplain at altitudes ranging between m and m i. The town receives an annual rainfall of mm. The town is the second largest city in terms of population and size. It has a population of , as recorded Central Statistical Office, The population of Kitwe is increasing rampantly as a result of economic activities such as mining, agriculture and other industries to mention a few.
Kitwe is made up of townships and suburban areas including Parklands, Riverside, Buchi, Nkana east, Nkana west, Garneton, Chimwemwe, Wusakile, Chipata, Kwacha, Mindolo and race course to mention a few.
The city is sometimes referred to as nkana-Kitwe. The town is experiencing massive economic development as a result of industrialization in most parts of the town. It is one of the most developed commercial and industrial areas in the nation, alongside Ndola and Lusaka.
It has complex of mines and farms in the north-western and western wedges Central Statistical Office, The town is rich in biological resources which includes the Kafue river, forests and wildlife in the Chembe bird sanctuary which is home for monkeys as well.
Kitwe is predominantly miombo woodlands characterized by mean annual rainfall of mm. The forests are sub-deciduous and are home to a number of birds species, small mammals rodents and shrews and invertebrates Ministry of Lands , Figure 1: A Map of Kitwe showing study sites.
The compound is located near the Kafue river which supports most of the agricultural activities, fishing and water provision. The area has two markets I. Thirty 30 traps were set in the houses on a daily basis to increase the catchability of rodents. In the Markets 10 traps were set on a daily basis just like in residential houses. The area has three main markets that are fully operational.
Chimwemwe is home to many ex-miners, miners and government workers. Owing to the differences in terms of size and location from chipata compound, the traps that were set were more than thirty 30 making it to 45 i. Riverside is located north east of Kitwe. The constituency is home to a number of well-to- do people with different business operations and activities.
The area is smaller than chimwemwe and includes the new riverside extensions. Trapping was done in three different habitat types of Kitwe i. Chipata, Chimwemwe and Riverside respectively based on their social economic status. Again three areas were selected randomly to sample rodents i. To trap the rodents, different baits were used and these included peanut butter, tomatoes and dry fish.
Peanut butter and tomatoes were effective in trapping the rodents in Riverside. The rodents in Chimwemwe and Chipata were easily enticed to tomatoes and dry fish. The baits were put in the traps during the evening and the traps were checked at dawn if there is any capture. After collecting, rodents were put in separate cages for differentiation and captivation while waiting for laboratory preparation and necropsy Dohoo, et al. The cages were labeled with markers and were assigned the names of study areas i.
Figure 2. Supplementary food was provided according to the origin of the rodents. Rodents from chipata were usually supplemented with dry fish, tomatoes and maize.
Rodents from Chimwemwe were supplemented with nshima, dry fish, tomatoes and maize. Rodents from riverside were supplemented with tomatoes, peanut butter mixed with corn, and maize. Fruits and vegetables were tested for their diet and they were found to be unpalatable to most of the rodents in cages, though they were eating slowly.
Figure 3: Picture showing Mr. The intestines were cut longitudinally from the Esophagus at the diaphragm to the rectum and examined macroscopically for the presence of helminths. In each habitat there were 11, 9, and 9 species of R. On the other hand, Chipata, Riverside and chimwemwe recorded 4, 2, and 7 species of R. Examination of rats from three different localities of the Kitwe resulted in identification of two endoparasites of zoonotic importance.
These include a tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and a roundworm Syphacia muris from the three localities i. Hymenolepis diminuta is a rat tapeworm whose diffusion throughout the world as a human infection is today rare even in developing countries. The great majority of the reported human infections such as leptospirosis, hypertomegaly and echinococcosis derive from mass stool screenings in different populations or field surveys in tropical and subtropical areas.
Infection is mainly asymptomatic, though rarely symptoms, such as itching, abdominal pain, and mild diarrhea, have been reported Patamia, et al. The parasite is zoonotic in nature and rodents may act as potential source of infection such as capillariasis and techillichnosis for human beings residing in their environment.
In Chipata, all the 15 specimens were found infected with H. In Riverside, all rodents were infected i. In Chimwemwe, results showed that only 12 rodents i. Table 1: The prevalence of helminths in two rodent species across three different localities. More interestingly, S. All these results were represented in a bar-chart see appendix for easy indication and interpretation of results.
The following results were obtained when testing for the correlation between locality compound type and the number of infected rodents. It was also found that the prevalence of H. The following graph shows the relationship between the number of infected rodent against the total number examined Gudissa, et al. The overall prevalence of endoparasites by compound type is represented in Figure.
The graph above shows a best fit-line that indicates correlation between parasite prevalence and compound. This showed that R. For R. The prevalence of endoparasites across the three different compounds was different and the variance was very high with R. The prevalence of helminths both H. It was more interesting that R. More recently, Sumangali, et al. It was noted that, there was a significant difference between the prevalence of helminths in rodents from Chipata, Chimwemwe and Riverside which might be due to the fact that, feeding, lactation and pregnancy stress in cages, causes depressed immunity which resulted in increased shedding of eggs through feaces Tanideh, et al.
The relationship between compounds types and parasite prevalence was also shown by the pooled variances and p-values of H. These means that H. This shows a relationship between compound and Rodent infestation as well as endoparasite prevalence. Where there is a high distribution of R.
The habitat types of Chipata and Riverside are also similar in terms of biota and life support, Chimwemwe is not very habitable for commensal rodents and it is a bit-polluted compared to riverside and Chipata, though the population of Chimwemwe tallied with the number of rodents collected. Chimwemwe had the highest number of R. Nothing is known of the transmission biology of either H. This study has shown that R. This study indicates that the intestinal parasite prevalence was not associated with R.
However, the study was constrained by the season rains and finances. Trapping of rodents was difficult at first but the captures increased with time after knowing the bait preferences of rodents and effective traps. Additionally, feeding of rodents was also a challenge as some of the supplemented foods were rejected. This left us in a quandary as to what could be the reason, and requires additional research. An increased record of rodents dying was also a limitation, this was investigated and the reason was the type of food supplied, and two pregnant rodents died during the study period under review and they were dissected for investigation of cause of death.
It was found that one had a worm- like parasite which had pierced on the stomach, while the other died as a result of food and stress in the cage as adopted by Gudissa, et al.
There is demanded for more investigation pertaining the supplementary diet and pregnancy in rodents. They suffer from excessive exposure to rodent vectors. The quality of life is poor in these settlements compared to Riverside. The situation is further aggravated by the higher incidence of rodent-borne diseases. Vector proliferation in high human density and low-income urban areas is the consequence of a number of factors such as inadequate housing facilities, unhygienic water supply, poor sanitation and lack of solid waste management facilities as well as the attitude and customs of the people.
Illiteracy further adds fuel to the fire Begon, The occurrence of the zoonotic parasites of rodents has been studied very extensively elsewhere throughout the world but little attention has been paid towards these as vector of various zoonotic parasitic diseases in Zambia Kitwe. This study has revealed part of the most valuable information on the occurrence and distribution of rodents, their parasites and associated diseases. As the population of Kitwe continues to increase rampantly, the population of rodents in these localities Chipata, Riverside and Chimwemwe will also increase exponentially.
This is because of the symbiotic association that is shared between rats and humans living in these areas Chikwenhere, Above all, this study has revealed that the prevalence of parasites was high in areas with high percentage of rodent population table 1. The recovered endoparasite are of profound zoonotic important and are sleeping giants that may wake up anytime and cause havoc to humans and their livestock Ahmad, This can lead to human and economic losses, and this may have consequences at different community levels.
Human beings are living in close association with these rodents at locations of study area. Rodents are reservoirs of zoonotic parasites and serious threat to human beings.
Recommendations on the basis of findings observed in trial research work are considerable with reference to public health hazards. Rats and Human Health in Africa: Proceedings of an international workshop on rat-borne diseases and the ratzooman research project.. Ahmad, m. Ansell, W. Appleton, C. Intestinal parasites of rats from Durban and implications for human health. Asgari, Q. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, SourthernIran: A molecular, isoenzyme and morphologic approach..
Journal of Research Medicine and Science, 12 1 , pp. Begon, M. Disease: health effects on humans,population effects on rodents, Liverpool : School of Biological Sciences, The University of Liverpool,. Bennett, T. The effects of cowpox virus on survival in natural rodent populations:increases and decreases.. Journal of Animal Ecology, Volume 71, pp. Central Statistical Office, Chidumayo, E.
The ecology of the single striped grass mouse, Lemniscomys griselda, in Zambia. Mammalian Journal, Volume 41, pp. Chikwenhere, G. Chris, A. Dohoo, I. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research.. Edward, O.
Thoephilus Terlumun. Freudenthal, M. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, Volume , pp. Gomez, V. Helminth communities and host parasite relationships in argentine brown rats Rattus norvegicus.
Helminthology Journal of Argentina, 3 1 , pp. Gradoni, L. Bottom of form leishmaniasis in tuscancy Italy : vii. Studies on role of the blackrat, Rattus rattus in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.. Med, Journal, 77 44 , pp.
Gudissa, T. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, 3 1 , pp. Herwig, L. Belgium and Danish pest infestation. Hornok, S. Synanthropic rodents and their ectoparasites as carriers of a novel haemoplasma and vector-borne, zoonotic pathogens indoors..
Huq, M. Helminth parasites of rats, house mice and moles in Bangladesh.. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, Volume 5, pp. Janowski, M. Understanding human behaviour and the transmission of rodent- borne diseases, United Kingdom: Natural Resources Institute. Kawalika, M. Laakkonen, J. Mafina, C. Journal of Helminthology, Volume 71, pp. Ministry of Lands , Patamia, I. Korean Journal Parasitol. Roberts, T. The mammals of Pakistan. UK: Oxford University Press. Sharma, R. Prevelance of endoparasites in wild rats in Greneda.
West Indian Veterinary Journal. Singleton, R. Rats, mice and people :rodent management and Biology. Prevalence of some Helminths in Rodents Captured from different city structures including poutry farms and Human population of Faisalabad, Pakistan..This study indicates that the intestinal parasite prevalence was not associated with R. Owing to the differences in terms of size and location from chipata compound, the traps that were set were more than thirty 30 making it to 45 i. Rodent-reservoir zoonoses account for many of the apparently prime candidates. That rodents play such a prominent role as reservoirs or vectors has to do with the fact that they are, as mammals, physiologically quite similar to humans, their huge diversity and the fact that some species live in close contact with humans Ahmad, Rodents spread diseases in a number of pathways.
It may lead to death or associated with chronic fever, hepatomegaly, hyper eosinophilia, liver fibrosis and necrosis. The graph above shows a best fit-line that indicates correlation between parasite prevalence and compound. Appleton, C. Urban rats Rattus spp. A number of cases have been documented all over the world Gomez, et al. Gudissa, T.
Additionally, management activities that do not interfere with agriculture are found to be highly cost-effective, suggesting that common ground exists between conservationist and private landowners. The town is rich in biological resources which includes the Kafue river, forests and wildlife in the Chembe bird sanctuary which is home for monkeys as well. It was more interesting that R. However, perhaps more important is the indirect transmission of diseases that takes place through rat-borne ectoparasites such as the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis; the vector of causative agents, Yersinia pestis, responsible for the plague, and Rickettsia typhi, responsible for typhus Sharma,
Again three areas were selected randomly to sample rodents i. Indexing document details. A considerable number of studies on rats and rat-borne pathogens, their description, distribution, management and biology behaviour have been conducted since s in the western parts of the world, albeit no studies have been done in Zambia on rat-borne parasites. Chipata, Chimwemwe and Riverside respectively based on their social economic status.